How New English Words are Born (Part 2)

The ability of English to evolve constantly as a language can be put down to several factors, one being that native speakers of the language relish playing with it, resulting in new vocabulary being invented all the time.

Of course, not all new words make it into the dictionary; nor do they manage to stay put if they get listed, for that matter. In a previous post we spoke about some ways in which new English words are born; here are some more ways in which new words enter the English language. 

3. Blending

Blending is the process of creating a new word, called a blend or portmanteau word, by combining parts of existing words. This method of coining new words by putting together the beginning of one word and the end of another has been around for centuries now. Even though there are no hard and fast rules about how to form a blend, it is noticeable that at least one of the words involved in the fusion has something chopped off it. Here are some examples of blends.

BlendCombination of
brunchbreakfast + lunch
smogsmoke + fog
flexitarianflexible + vegetarian
freemiumfree + premium

4. Conversion

This refers to the method of changing a word from one word class (e.g. noun, verb, adjective, adverb) to another. To put it another way, a new word can be formed by simply changing the grammatical function of an existing word. So, the next time you say that you will email or download something, think about this: you are using English words that originally began life as nouns. 

Here are some more nouns that later became verbs: friend, bomb, email, text, elbow, blog, lace, chair, drink, divorce, intern, model, voice.

5. Back-formation

When we form words with back-formation, we chop off a part of an already existing word that is considered to be an affix. This method is most commonly employed to make verbs out of nouns. 

Back-formationExisting word
absorbabsorption
babysitbabysitter
burgleburglar
editeditor

6. Loanwords

Perhaps the most straightforward way to create new words is to borrow them from other languages. Over the years, English has borrowed generously from other languages, some of which are Latin, French, German, Japanese, Spanish and Hindi. When English speakers come across a word in a foreign language that describe something that they don’t yet have a word for, they tend to borrow it. Here are some popular loanwords:

LoanwordLanguage borrowed from
pandaNepali
kindergartenGerman
shampooHindi
caféFrench
platonicGreek
karaokeJapanese

Do not forget to read the final part in this series if you wish to know about some more methods of inventing new words.

Visit the British Council’s Learn English website.

How New English Words are Born (Part 1)

English has to be the most dynamic language around, forever evolving and adapting to the needs of its users. Year by year a great number of words enter the language, while some others leave. The marked rate at which English has expanded in recent years is a good indication that it has managed to keep pace with changing times and technology.

Having a basic understanding of how new words are created can be handy. If you know how new words enter the language, you will be better placed to identify strategies to help you cope with new language. Let us take a closer look at some ways in which new English words are born:

1. Affixation

A letter or a group of letters, known as an affix, can be added to the beginning or end of a word to make new words that express new ideas. This method of using a prefix (affix added at the beginning) or suffix (affix added at the end) to create new words is called affixation.  

PrefixMeaningExample
micro-extremely smallmicrobe, microscope
post-afterpostgraduate, postnatal
tri-threetriangle, tricycle
re-againreconsider, rewrite
SuffixMeaningExample
-doma state of beingboredom, martyrdom
-er / -ora person whoexplorer, narrator
-ismdoctrine / beliefBuddhism, communism
-nessa state of beinggoodness, sadness

As you can see, it isn’t too difficult to work out the meaning of such words, as prefixes and suffixes are often attached to words that already have known definitions. However, prefixes don’t usually change the word class of the words they modify (e.g. cycle, tricycle → noun), whereas suffixes often change the form entirely (e.g. explore → verb, explorer → noun). 

2. Compounding

Compounding is the process of making up a fresh word by joining two or more independent words. Although compounds are found in all word classes, the most common types are nouns. Here are some examples:

NounsVerbsAdjectivesAdverbs
bus stopbabysitheartbreakingnevertheless
rock bandchain-smokesugar-freeself-consciously

When existing words are combined to form a compound, it could sometimes carry a meaning that is different to what the individual parts convey. The noun fur baby, for instance, refers to a person’s pet animal with fur, such as a cat or dog, especially when it receives the kind of love and attention that a child would receive from its parent. 

The next couple of parts in this series will introduce you to more types of word formation.

Visit the British Council’s Learn English website.

Preparing for Your Journey to the United States for Study

Over the last eighteen months, international travel has become very difficult as a result of the global Covid-19 pandemic. This virus has impacted every continent in ways we never thought imaginable just two years ago. As a result, things in everyday life for students seeking higher education outside their home country have changed substantially. If you’ve been planning to study in the United States and have been admitted for study, gotten your visa, and are now ready to go, what do you need to know?

Get your documents in order

Now more than ever, be aware of recent changes in guidance for travellers to the United States due to the pandemic, and have your documents in order before you travel. From your I-20, to your passport and F-1 student visa, to your admissions letter, academic and financial documents, everything must reflect who you are and what your institution’s plan is for classes this coming academic year. At present most US colleges are planning for in-person study this fall. So, for new international students should be able to pass through immigration control without many issues. However, if your intended college has recently made the decision to go completely online, you may not be allowed in the country.

Communicate with your university regularly

Our friends at EducationUSA, the U.S. Department of State’s network of educational advising centres in 170 countries, traditionally hold pre-departure orientations for international students before they head to the United States for study. While most of these sessions have still been virtual due to the pandemic, they are still happening and can be great resources for students like yourself trying to make sense of a very confusing time in our world. As you get ready to begin your U.S. study journey, the most important people you need to maintain regular communication with are the international student office staff at your college or university. For many U.S. higher education institutions, the past few months have been ones that have been dramatically disrupted, like much of the world, by this global pandemic. Plans these colleges made in April for how the next academic year would look like for new students may very well have changed. As a result it is essential for you to be aware of what those plans are and know what you should do.

Know the immigration and airline rules

Entering the United States as an international student is a fairly straightforward process in normal times if you’ve taken all the required steps and are well-prepared for this last step of your journey to U.S. study. However, these are not normal times. You must know what the current procedures both for the airlines you may be flying into the United States and the Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) division that handles immigration control at the borders. As of earlier this year, all US-bound airlines are requiring all passengers to have had a negative Covid-19 test documented within three days before flying internationally. Even if you have been vaccinated you will still need to show a negative test result.

Moreover, when entering the United States, the officials at CBP who interview each person seeking entry have to ask questions about your intended studies when you present your documents at the immigration checkpoint at the airport. The Department of Homeland Security which oversees CBP has put together important resources in its Study in the States site that discusses the current regulations. Be sure to review this guidance before you leave.

Best of luck with your journey!

Being Imaginative in IELTS Speaking (Part 2)

In a previous blog post, we spoke of how letting your imagination run wild is a good thing to do in IELTS Speaking. Your answers will be longer, and they’ll probably have more varied language.

It’s not just at the beginning of the Speaking section where thinking up details to embellish your responses works. Maintaining this approach throughout the interview will certainly pay dividends.

Part 2

In this part, the test taker receives a topic on a task card and one minute preparation time. They are then expected to talk for up to two minutes without further prompts from the Examiner. Since the focus here is on the test taker’s ability to speak at length on a given topic, it might be a good idea for you to draw on your own experience to help you keep going. That being said, it may not always be possible for you to relate to topics. Here’s an example:

Talk about a time when you were really close to a wild animal.

If the topic you receive on the day were to leave you stumped, creativity can come to the rescue. For instance, you could quickly think of someone else’s experience (e.g. an anecdote shared by a friend, a movie scene, a documentary account), add finer details to personalise it, and present it as your own.    

Part 3

In the final part, the test taker and Examiner discuss at length the topic in Part 2 in a more general and abstract way. Here, you need to show an ability to express and justify opinions, to discuss and analyse topics, and to speculate about issues. Yet again, being imaginative can be the key to producing well-rounded answers. In order to buy yourself some time to work out what to say, you could begin responses with a functional phrase. Here are a couple of examples:  

  • Just last week I happened to read an article online about ….
  • I’ve often thought about this question, as it is hotly debated nowadays. Now, if you ask me,…

An additional benefit of this approach is that such phrases can also boost your vocabulary and grammar scores. Just see to it that you use functional language prudently to avoid sounding too rehearsed.

Just like any other skill, creativity too demands regular practice, so be ready to put in the hard yards. Good luck!

Being Imaginative in IELTS Speaking (Part 1)

Sometimes IELTS test takers fret over the possibility of not having enough to talk about certain topics in the Speaking section, and rightly so. It is quite possible to be thrown off balance by a question that you are ill-prepared for, for example, a two-minute talk on ‘a place near water that you often visit’.

First and foremost, you need to realise that while it is good to treat the IELTS Speaking interview like a normal conversation so that you do not feel too edgy on the day, your objective is not to exchange information socially with the Examiner. Once the test begins, you should be using your whole bag of tricks to show just how good your English is. Remember, each question you are asked is an opportunity to show off your language skills, so make the most of it!

Oftentimes, factually correct answers could be short, leaving the Examiner with insufficient evidence to rate you. One way of getting round this problem is by learning to be imaginative when speaking. And if being imaginative means including details that make your answers less truthful, it should not deter you. The IELTS Speaking interview is not an exercise in information exchange; it is an opportunity for you to showcase your language skills.

Here are some tips to make your answers more interesting and varied.

Part 1     

The Speaking section begins with the test taker being asked questions about familiar topics, such as study, work, accommodation, family, friends or hobbies. Some questions here could be answered with short utterances.

Q:Do you live in a house or apartment?
A:In an apartment.

As you can see, short answers will hardly help the Examiner determine your actual language level. What you need to do, instead, is to add as much detail as possible, even if some of it happens to be untrue.

Q:Do you live in a house or apartment?
A:I’ve been renting a flat for the last couple of years. It’s located in the heart of the city, so most amenities are within walking distance. Besides, flats tend to offer a better social life, which is something I love because I’m a people person.

Now, in reality, you may shun parties and social events, but it should not really stop you from saying such an answer.

There is more advice on how to be creative in the next part, so don’t miss it!

The View From Campus: Applying for a student visa during a pandemic

The past eighteen months during the Covid-19 global pandemic have upended many students’ study plans. But for those who have persevered, congratulations, you are almost there! The next step, getting your student visa, is perhaps the most nerve-wracking time for international students headed for the United States. The good news is with the right preparation, honest answers, and appropriate documentation you can give yourself an excellent chance of being granted a student visa.

Here is what you should do as U.S. consulates and embassies reopen after the pandemic:

1. Got your I-20?  

Make sure you have received the I-20 & admission letter from the college/university you plan to attend. You may have been accepted and received I-20s from more than one school. We recommend that you decide which institution you will attend before starting the visa process.

2. Check your passport

Your passport must be valid for at least six months after your initial planned entry into the U.S. Your name on your I-20 must be spelled the same (and in the same order) as is listed on your passport.

3. Pay your SEVIS fee.

Students can pay this $350 fee online. You will need an e-receipt for the next steps in the process.

4. Complete the Visa Application Form.

You will need most of the following items to complete this form (online DS-160 (non-immigrant visa application):

Passport

SEVIS ID (from your I-20 form)

Address of the college you will attend (usually on the I-20)

Travel itinerary to the U.S. if you have made arrangements already

Admission letter from the college you will attend

Proof of funding – bank statements, scholarship award letters, etc.

Dates of your last 5 visits to the United States (if any)

Profile names on your social media accounts over the last 5 years.

After completing the online DS-160 application, print off the DS-160 Bar Code page. You will not need to print the entire application.

Plan ahead!

You can schedule your visa appointment up to 120 days in advance of the start date listed on your I-20 (when your new school requires you to be on campus). Because this summer there is two years’ worth of international students seeking visas to enter the United States, in some countries there may be a substantial wait time to get an appointment, and, more importantly, to process your application. The good news is that student visa applicants are given priority, even in countries where U.S. consulates are open for emergency appointments only.

Schedule your visa appointment at the U.S. embassy/consulate nearest you.

Using this site you’ll learn whether you can make your appointment online or by telephone. You will also need to pay the visa application fee (approximately $160, the price varies slightly per country).

Attend a Visa Session at an EducationUSA Advising Center in your country.

EducationUSA works closely with the U.S. consular officers that conduct the visa interviews. At these sessions (which may still be held virtually this year) they will make it clear what they are expecting from successful student visa applicants, and the kind of questions they will ask.

Enjoy the experience.

A few years ago our friends at the U.S. Embassy in London put together a great video to help ease your fears, Mission: Possible – Get Your U.S. Student Visa.

Talk to your friends

Are any of your former classmates studying in the U.S. now? Ask for their advice about their interview experiences and ask for their recommendations. You can also check out how successful students help demystify the student visa process.

Breathe, relax, and be honest.

You have invested a lot of time, energy, and resources to get to this visa interview. Try not to be too nervous. You are almost there. Answer the visa officer’s questions honestly – Why did you pick the particular college you want to attend? How are you funding your studies? What are your plans after you finish your studies?  You may not know the exact answer to this last question, but be thinking about how you might answer that question.

Good luck to you as you take this important next step!

IELTS Academic or IELTS General Training? (Part 2)

Previously we elaborated on how IELTS can open doors for those wanting to study in a foreign country. IELTS Academic is the popular choice when it comes to higher education, whereas courses below degree level may require you to take IELTS General Training. 

Read on to know which IELTS test can help you land a job in an English-speaking country and which one can help you move abroad permanently.

IELTS for work

Getting a good IELTS band score can, without doubt, greatly enhance your work prospects, as it proves to prospective employers that you have enough language skills to work and live comfortably in an English-speaking environment.

Employers from a wide range of sectors, such as healthcare, finance, government, construction, energy, aviation and tourism, require prospective employees to submit an IELTS result. It is up to individual test users to determine the IELTS band scores and test type (Academic or General Training) that best serve their needs.

You will most likely be asked to sit IELTS Academic if you wish to register with a professional body in industries such as nursing, medicine and pharmacy, where English language competence is of critical importance. IELTS General Training, on the other hand, is usually required for vocational training, for example in the construction, hospitality and leisure, and tourism industries.

IELTS for migration

IELTS is accepted as evidence of English language proficiency for migration by several countries, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the UK. Remember that each country sets its own IELTS requirement – for instance, the minimum IELTS score for migrating to New Zealand is 6.5, whereas Australia has set the minimum score at 6. The score required may also vary depending on the type of visa you apply for.

Individuals intending to apply for permanent residency in a foreign country most commonly take IELTS General Training. It measures English language proficiency in a practical, everyday context, and the tasks and texts reflect both workplace and social situations.

All in all, IELTS Academic and IELTS General Training are two separate tests designed for two different purposes. While we may have answered some of your questions, it is best to check the entry requirements set by your organisation before deciding which IELTS test to take.

IELTS Academic or IELTS General Training? (Part 1)

IELTS is a test designed to help individuals who are keen on studying, working or living in an English-speaking country.  Globally recognised by more than 11,000 employers, universities, schools and immigration bodies, the IELTS brand has gone from strength to strength since its introduction over three decades ago.

The real-world feel that IELTS offers is something that has helped it earn international acclaim. As a lot of the test content reflects everyday situations, it is easier for test takers to relate to the tasks they receive. Besides, great care is taken to ensure that the test is unbiased and fair to test takers from all backgrounds.

If you are new to the test, you may be confused about whether to sit IELTS Academic or IELTS General Training. All IELTS test takers take the same Listening and Speaking tests, but the Reading and Writing sections differ. Here is some information to help you understand how the tests differ.

IELTS for study

On average, about three million students choose to study outside their country of citizenship each year, with many among them preferring English-speaking countries, such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the UK and USA. Universities in these countries welcome foreign students with open arms, provided applicants have the academic credentials and language proficiency to be able to successfully complete the course they have chosen. Some universities in non-English speaking countries also ask applicants to submit IELTS scores if the course is taught in English.

IELTS Academic is suitable for those wishing to pursue higher education in an English-speaking environment. The test reflects aspects of academic language and evaluates whether you are ready to begin studying or training. It can be your passport to international success, enabling you to study at an undergraduate or postgraduate level anywhere in the world. However, if you wish to study or train at below degree level, then IELTS General Training would be appropriate. Whichever IELTS test you take with the British Council, you do get the added benefit of having your results sent to a maximum of five organisations for free. In the next part, you will be able to find out more about how IELTS can help with work or migration.

The View From Campus: What to Expect When Applying to U.S. Colleges Post-pandemic

In the course of the last sixteen months, the world has changed. Many students seeking study opportunities in the United States (and other English-speaking countries) have had their plans cancelled, delayed, or dramatically altered due to the pandemic. As we in the United States are coming out of the pandemic with vaccines readily available, mask orders and other social distancing requirements being lifted, a sense of normalcy is beginning to return to everyday life, slowly. While there are many countries still struggling with the effects of Covid, we want to provide some tips for how you can go about applying to U.S. colleges and universities in the coming months.

College social media and website

While never a substitute for physically visiting campus or interacting with an admissions officers, faculty, or alumni from a college or university you are interested in, institutional websites and social media accounts can provide useful information to assist you in making informed decisions. Here are a few examples of what you can access to get what you need.

  • Reviewing Facebook pages and groups for important updates on changes and announcements.
  • Viewing YouTube videos from international student offices explaining how students can travel.
  • Checking out Instagram posts about what’s happening at the college.
  • Watching students talk about their success stories during Covid-19
  • Visiting university Covid-19 web pages, like this one from the University of Washington.

Particularly if you are looking for admissions information, these university sites that have specific details about any changes to the application process in terms of tests required, alternatives available, and changes in deadlines or deposits.

Virtual tours and events online

One unintended consequence of the impact of Covid-19 is how U.S. colleges increasingly connect with their prospective students through digital means.  Here’s a regularly updated list of different virtual events and tours for prospective and admitted students.  These resources will help you in:

  • Seeing campus through online videos and self-guided tours gives you a window into what life would look like for you at colleges you are considering.
  • Hearing student experiences about everything from arrival on campus, attending class, studying, participating in activities and events paints an important picture.
  • Learning process/procedures related to applying for admission, funding your studies, getting your visa and more.
  • Attending student pre-departure events to make sure you are ready for your journey to campus.

These virtual connections will be essential as you ensure you are making the right choice for your higher education options in the United States.

Chats with current international students

In the end, nothing means more for prospective students like yourself to have conversations with currently enrolled students at the colleges and universities you are considering. That insight from a fellow international student, maybe even someone from your country, is invaluable to get the full perspective you need about where you will spend the next two to four years (or more).

  • Asking questions directly
  • Connecting with students from your country
  • Dispelling rumors about what’s happening

As you narrow down your list of colleges you may apply to, be sure to ask the international admissions office about opportunities to chat with their international students. To hear some of the discussion around this topic, check out a recent Facebook Live Chat we did that shares some useful insights. Good luck!

Using Current Affairs to Develop IELTS Vocabulary (Part 2)

In Part 1 of this blog series, we identified the benefits of building your IELTS vocabulary and why it may be a good idea for test takers to form a keen interest in current affairs.

Remember, though, that keeping abreast of the latest news will not automatically turn you into a wordsmith.  

How to boost your IELTS vocabulary

Here is some advice to help you build sufficient vocabulary for the test.

  • Do not learn words in isolation

There is enough evidence to underline the fact that it is a lot more rewarding to learn words in chunks than in isolation. Collocation is an area that your Examiner will rate you on, which means your grasp of the relationship between words is important. When you spot a new word that you would like to learn, look for other words that collocate with it. That way, you will get more bang for your buck!

  • Be on the lookout for useful language

News stories are normally full of catchy vocabulary. You may be tempted to learn a new word or phrase that appears fancy, but always ask yourself this first – will it help you in the IELTS test? If the answer is a no, move on without hesitation. 

  • Organise the vocabulary you wish to learn

Motivate the learner in you; record new vocabulary in a way that makes learning easy and structured. If you are new to this, a quick Google search should fetch you more ideas than you would possibly need.

  • Discover activities that can help you use new language

While it is important that you record new vocabulary diligently, you IELTS band scores will depend mostly on your active vocabulary, i.e. words you can use when you speak or write. Search online for activities that might help you retain new vocabulary better.

  • Find news stories that interest you

Do not feel pressured to follow trending news stories. Instead, choose topics that are appealing so that you do not lose interest midway. That said, always have one eye on news items related to common IELTS topics so that you get rewarded for your efforts with a high IELTS band score on vocabulary. 

Lastly, remember to learn a little every day and have fun doing it. You are more likely to retain language that way.

Pin It on Pinterest