Capitalisation, the appropriate use of capital letters, is an area of punctuation that many learners pay little attention to. One reason might be that this topic can look deceptively simple at first glance. However, on exploring further, you very quickly realise that there’s quite a bit to learn. What also becomes evident is that like most grammar points, rules related to the use of capital letters aren’t always cut and dried.
Here are some handy tips to help you decide when to use capitalisation.
Rule 1: Capitalise the first word of a sentence
This one is as straightforward as grammar rules come because there’s hardly any complication here. Every time you begin a new sentence, start the first word with a capital letter.
Hello there! How have you been?
You cannot go in there without permission.
Rule 2: Capitalise names of people, institutions, companies, brands
It goes without saying that people’s names are always capitalised. Similarly, the names of institutions, companies, and brands generally begin with a capital letter. Remember, if the name has more than one word, all important words in the name have their initial letter capitalised.
Alan and Mathew are coming over this evening.
He works for the National Health Service.
United Airlines is a major player in the aviation sector that operates domestic and international flights.
Most people consider Sony to be the pioneers of portable music.
Rule 3: Capitalise cities, countries, nationalities, religions, languages
The names of cities, countries, nationalities, religions, and languages are proper nouns, so they should be capitalised. In the case of religion, the names of various deities are also capitalised.
Prague is a breathtakingly beautiful city.
He is from the United Arab Emirates.
Her father is Irish, whereas her mother is Scottish.
He’s had a Christian upbringing.
He speaks English, Spanish, Italian, and German.
Shiva is an ancient Hindu deity.
Rule 4: Capitalise the personal pronoun ‘I’
Unlike other personal pronouns (e.g. we, you, she, it), the personal pronoun ‘I’ is always written as a capital letter, no matter where it appears in a sentence.
I don’t know about the others, but I don’t want to go back to that restaurant.
James and I were the only ones to score goals yesterday.
We’ll be back soon with more on the use of capital letters.