OPPORTUNITIES ABROAD

What to Expect in a Decent Dictionary (Part 1)

 

Image courtesy of Chris Dlugosz via Flickr (CC 2.0)

 

A decent dictionary, be it printed or electronic, can be an invaluable tool when trying to improve your English. Sadly, not many language learners exploit it to the full.

 

So, what can you typically expect to find in one?

 

  1. The meaning(s) of an English word or phrase

Most words in the English language have more than one meaning, and dictionaries usually list them out.

Example:

run (verb)

  • to move quickly using legs
  • to manage a business
  • to use a computer program
  • (of liquid) to flow in a particular direction
  • to try to get elected to a job
  • to drive somebody to a place

 

  1. Part of speech

This refers to one of the grammatical groups that a word belongs to depending on how it is used in a sentence. Remember, a word could have different forms.

Example:

drive – verb (= when used to talk about operating a vehicle)

drive – noun (= when used to talk about someone’s energy or desire to do something)

 

  1. Pronunciation

The phonetic transcription of a word usually appears alongside it to help users pronounce the word accurately. Alternate ways of pronouncing the word can also be found in some dictionaries.

Example:

 

Word Pronunciation

(British English)

Pronunciation

(North American English)

restaurant /ˈrestrɒnt/ /ˈrestrɑːnt/
sure /ʃʊə(r)/ or /ʃɔː(r)/ /ʃʊr/

 

  1. Verb forms

Most verbs in English have between 3 and 5 forms; knowing them is essential to be able to make different grammatical structures.

Example:

 

Present simple

I / we / you / they

Present simple

he / she / it

Past simple Past participle -ing form
cut cuts cut cut cutting
dance dances danced danced dancing
eat eats ate eaten eating

 

  1. Other grammatical information

A comprehensive dictionary may also contain other important information, such as the plural form of a noun, or whether a noun is countable or uncountable.

Example:

thief (singular) – thieves (plural)

furniture (uncountable)

 

If you’ve just started learning English, using a dictionary regularly can help stretch your limited vocabulary, so be sure to use one.

 

GLOSSARY

 

decent
Form : adjective
Meaning : of good enough quality
Example : Is there a restaurant nearby where I can get a decent meal?

 

exploit
Form : verb
Meaning : to use something well in order to get benefit from it
Example : I don’t think students exploit the study resources in our library enough.

 

to the full
Form : phrase
Meaning : to the maximum
Example : Youngsters usually want to enjoy life to the full.

 

comprehensive
Form : adjective
Meaning : including many details
Example : He’s writing a comprehensive guide to tourism in Asia.

 

Summer Travelling on a Student Budget

Image courtesy of Jack Snell via Flickr (CC 2.0)

 

The Long Hot Summer

The one sure thing about university is that you get holidays – lots of them! And summer is the biggest and the best time to set off on some adventures. But they can burn a hole in your pocket too, so here are some tips to keep you on the road…

 

Make the most of them – plan your trip

Planning your budget for your holiday is of course the most important way to keep costs down. Contingency money and travel insurance(!) are also must-haves. You never know when you’re going to need it and you’ll be glad that you have it when you do. If you travel a lot, think about getting annual cover, as the costs tend to be less.

Planning can also steer you clear of the dreaded ‘tourist traps’ that will quickly see your bank balance go south! Main tourist spots will attract a hike in prices, so be sure you know as best you can before you go what you should expect to pay for food, hotels etc.

It’s a long summer, so working and saving before going anywhere is always a good option for students. It gives you the time to save your pennies and plan your trip before setting out.

 

Work whilst you’re away

Finding a job whilst you’re travelling can give you a great chance to get to know the people and culture of a place you’re visiting. Best of all, you’ll make friends for life.

It can also give you a base and the money to explore the country from. Your new friends can give you the inside information on the best places to go and how to avoid the tourist traps that will drain your bank account.

Having experience of working in different countries always looks impressive on a CV too.

 

Use your Social Media

As well as the must-have travel guides in book form, there is a lot you can now research online to find the best deals and most exciting places to go. Social media is also a good way to check what’s going on in certain places and potentially find a job for when you arrive. As ever – be cautious on the internet and never give over your details. Only use it for extra research, as things may be very different when you get there!

Once you’re there, social media can help plug you in to what’s going on in town, and find the best places to explore

 

Festivals and Camps

Festivals and camps that only exist in the summer will often be looking for employees, so can be a great way of having a cheap holiday. Camps like Camp America will pay for your room and board, and you’ll have extra money to spend as you see fit.

Again, this type of work will look great on your CV and you’ll have made great friends whilst enjoying yourself – that can’t be bad!

 

Failing all of that, you can start saving now and travel the world next year!

Why IELTS Is Your Ticket To The World

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English is spoken at a useful level by a quarter of the world population. That’s over one and a half billion people.

It’s the world’s language of exchange, communication and business – to just a name a few areas. So, to speak English is to open yourself up to a world of opportunities.

If you’re planning to live, work or study using English you will often need to prove your ability to use it.

IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is the world’s most popular English language test. More than 10,000 organisations in 140 countries accept IELTS, including schools, universities, employers, immigration authorities and professional bodies

More than 2.9 million IELTS tests around the world are taken each year.

Taking IELTS opens doors. It can help you live, study and work around the world, including USA, UK, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.

IELTS assesses all of your English skills — reading, writing, listening and speaking, and is designed to reflect how you will use English at study, at work, and at play, in your new life abroad.

Employers and universities want you to be able to use English in the real world, so IELTS is what you will need to prove it.

IELTS is the most widely accepted English language test that uses a one-on-one speaking test to assess your English communication skills. This means that you are assessed by having a real-life conversation with a real person. This is the most effective and natural way of testing your English conversation skills.

Whatever your plans in the world, IELTS will help you achieve them.

How Signposting Can Help Improve Your Listening

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Imagine you are in a brand new city and need to get to a particular place. If you had no technology for help, you would be all at sea. Even so, you could still get directions the old-fashioned way via signposts – signs next to a road giving information about the direction and distance to a place.

 

Similarly, when language learners hear a lecture or an extended talk given by a native speaker, they may experience difficulty in fully understanding what’s being said. Unlike reading, where you can check content over and over again, listening generally gives you only one chance to make out what is being said. In such a situation, identifying signpost expressions can help improve comprehension.

 

So, what exactly are signpost expressions? Well, they are words that guide the listener through the various stages of a talk. In a way, signpost expressions help the listener predict what is going to be said next. As a result, the relationship between points becomes clearer, be it comparing, contrasting, adding information, or just sequencing.

 

Here are some common expressions used for signposting:

 

Signpost expressions What they indicate
Firstly The beginning of a list of points
like, such as Introduction of an example
while, whereas Comparing two or more things
In other words, Put another way Rephrasing what has been said
Moreover, What’s more Introduction of additional information
However, This isn’t always the case though Introduction of a contrast or an exception
As I said earlier Reference to a point made earlier
Moving on Introduction of a new point
Finally The speaker is nearing the end of the talk / Introduction of the last point

 

 

In language tests, candidates often need to listen to long monologues and answer questions. A good example of this is the IELTS Listening test, which has two monologues, including a university-style lecture.

 

Be sure to look out for signposting language in an exam situation, and you’ll have a very good chance of finding the right answers.

 

 

GLOSSARY

 

at sea
Form : phrase
Meaning : confused and not sure what to do
Example : I’m all at sea with this new syllabus. I mean, I am not familiar with many of these topics.

 

extended
Form : adjective
Meaning :  longer than expected
Example : If you buy this TV right now, you also get an extended warranty. 

 

over and over again
Form : phrase
Meaning : several times
Example : Reihaan, your dad has told you over and over again not to play in the rain.

 

in a way
Form : phrase
Meaning : to a certain extent
Example : In a way marrying Jake within weeks of meeting him was a big mistake.

 

 

monologue
Form : noun
Meaning : a long speech by someone during a conversation that stops others from saying anything
Example : Thomas went into a monologue about his trip to Sri Lanka last year.

 

The View From Campus: 10 US Student Visa Tips

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Everyone has heard a story (or two) of a friend, or friend of a friend, who has been denied a student visa to study in the U.S., right? Well, the truth is, that over the last five years, the global average of students being approved for a U.S. student visa (F-1) has been over 80 percent.

The good news is with the right preparation, honest answers, and appropriate documentation you can give yourself an excellent chance of being granted a student visa.

 

Here are the ten steps you will need to take:
10. Got your I-20? Make sure you have received the I-20 & admission letter from the college/university you plan to attend. You may have been accepted and received I-20s from more than one school. We recommend that you make a decision as to which institution you will attend before starting the visa process.

9. Check your passport:
• Make sure your passport will be valid for at least six months after your initial planned entry into the U.S.
• Is your name spelled the same (and in the same order) as is listed on your passport? It has to be!

8. Pay your SEVIS fee. Students can pay this fee online. You will need an e-receipt for next steps in the process.

7. Complete the Visa Application Form online DS-160 (non-immigrant visa application). You will need most of the following items to complete this form:
• Passport
• SEVIS ID (from your I-20 form)
• Address of the college you will attend (usually on the I-20)
• Travel itinerary to the U.S. if you have made arrangements already
• Admission letter from the college you will attend
• Proof of funding – bank statements, scholarship award letters, etc.
• Dates of your last five visits to the United States (if any)

6. Plan ahead! You can schedule your visa appointment up to 120 days in advance of the start date listed on your I-20 (when your new school requires you to be on campus).

5. Schedule your visa appointment at the U.S. embassy/consulate nearest you. You will also need to pay the visa application fee (approximately $160, price varies slightly per country).

4. Attend a Visa Session at an EducationUSA Advising Center in your country. At these sessions they will make it clear what they are expecting from successful student visa applicants, and the kind of questions they will ask.

3. Enjoy the experience. A couple years ago our friends at the U.S. Embassy in London put together a great video to help ease your fears, Mission: Possible – Get Your U.S. Student Visa.

2. Talk to your friends. Are any of your former classmates studying in the U.S. now? Ask their advice about their interview experiences and ask for their recommendations.

1. Breathe, relax, and be honest. You have invested a lot of time, energy, and resources to get to this visa interview. Try not to be too nervous. You are almost there.

 

Good luck to you as you take this important next step!

 

A Quick Guide to Prepositions of Place

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A preposition of place shows the location of someone or something. Three of the most commonly used ones in this category are at, on and in.

 

When to use at

Use at when referring to the specific position where someone or something is located.

 

Used to refer to Example
addresses at 39 Lake Road | at 221B Baker Street
a specific location at the bus stop | at the railway station | at the airport
a meeting point We decided to meet at the club. | Let’s meet at the mall.
a place of study She’s studying at Glasgow University.
someone’s shop or house I’m at the grocer’s. | I’m at the dentist’s. | I’m at Katie’s.
group activities at a conference | at a party | at a rock concert | at a wedding
a large place when we consider it to be a point in a journey Our plane stopped at Dubai for refuelling before landing in Zurich.

 

 

When to use on

Use on to indicate someone or something is located on a surface.

 

Used to refer to Example
travel via public transport on a bus | on a train | on the metro | on a plane | on a ship
travel using horses or two-wheelers on a cycle | on a motorbike | on a scooter | on a horse
pages in a book on the first page | on page 23
the number of the floor on the ground floor | on the eight floor
position by a lake, sea, road, street, etc. London is on the Thames. | They used to live on Orchard Street.
something that is in contact with a surface on the wall | on the table | on the floor | on the ceiling

 

When to use in

Use in to show that someone or something is in an enclosed space.

 

Used to refer to Example
large areas in Paris | in France | in Europe | in the desert | in the woods
three-dimensional space in the office | in a supermarket | in a flat | in a house
cars, small private aircrafts, boats, etc. in a car | in a taxi | in a boat | in a helicopter

 

Remember, you cannot do without prepositions of place if you wish to use English accurately.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Quick Guide to Prepositions of Time

Image courtesy of Christopher Allen via Flickr (CC 2.0)

 

A preposition is a relationship word which generally shows the location of something (in the hall), the time when something happens (at midnight), the way something is done (by train), and so on.

 

Learning them can be a little bit tricky, as there aren’t always rules to help you choose the correct one. To make matters worse, some prepositions can have many different uses. For example, according to the Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries, the preposition on has eighteen different functions.

 

In this article, we’ll consider how to use three common prepositions of time: at, on, in.

 

When to use at

Use at when referring to a specific time that is relatively short.

 

clock times at 7 o’clock | at 6:30 pm
holiday periods at Christmas | at Easter
specific times of the day at noon | at midnight
meal times  at lunchtime | at dinner time

 

Of course, there are situations when at is used to show longer periods of time ‒ for instance, we say at night, or at the weekend.

 

When to use on

Use on when referring to days and dates in general.

 

days of the week on Monday | on Thursday
dates on the 15th of July | on 22nd February
special days on New Year’s Day | on Republic Day | on her birthday
parts of specific days on Friday morning | on Sunday night

 

When to use in

Use in when referring to longer periods of time.

 

parts of a day in the morning | in the afternoon | in the evening
seasons in winter | in autumn
months in February | in July
years in 1977 | in 2015
decades in the seventies | in the 1980s
centuries in the fifteenth century | in the twenty first century

 

Remember, we do not use a preposition before certain expressions of time, such as last, next, every, each, or this. For example, we say:

I saw that film last Saturday. (NOT I saw that film on last Saturday.)

I play tennis every Sunday. (NOT I play tennis on every Sunday.)

 

 

 

GLOSSARY

 

tricky
Form : adjective
Meaning : difficult to do
Example : Some people can find operating smartphones a bit tricky.

 

 

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