So far in our series of blog posts on conditional sentences, we’ve discussed the zero, first and second conditionals.
In this final part, we’ll talk about the third conditional and then do a quick comparison of all four structures.
Unlike the first and second conditionals, which talk about situations in the present or future, the third conditional is used to talk about a past situation that is unreal. In fact, we imagine a change in a past situation, where something did or did not happen, and then imagine a different result for it.
If Tom had played, he would have scored for sure.
If I had married her, I would have lived in Switzerland.
Sam wouldn’t have passed the test if his girlfriend hadn’t helped him.
The first example is about Tom, who did not play in a particular match. However, the speaker imagines just the opposite and then talks about an imaginary result, i.e. Tom getting his name on the score sheet. The third conditional is often used to express regret or to complain about something.
|if + past perfect||would + have + past participle|
|conditional clause||main clause|
Even proficient language users would be quick to admit that it isn’t easy to get your head around the concept of conditionals. One thing to remember is to NOT focus on form, as it may be misleading. For instance, although the second conditional structure has the past tense, such sentences usually talk about the present or future.
Here’s a quick comparison of the various conditional structures to help you decide when to use what:
|Zero||If you heat chocolate, it melts.||Any||Talks about something that is always true|
|First||If I get this job, I’ll buy you a new phone.||Future||Talks about something that is likely to happen|
|Second||If I won the lottery, I would buy a Ferrari.||Present or future||Talks about something that is unlikely to happen|
|Third||If I hadn’t drunk so much, I wouldn’t have got into trouble.||Past||Talks about an unreal past and its imaginary result|
Conditional sentences can be hard to master, but remember, if you know how to use them well, you can talk about imaginary situations with confidence.